The structure of the roof
The roof forms the upper limitation of a building. Regarding roof shapes there are flat roofs and inclined roofs (flatly inclined roof, steeply pitched roof)
The flat roof has an incline of 0 degrees up to maximum 25 degrees (country-specific differences). In case of a higher roof pitch it is called inclined roof or monopitch roof.
The roof consists of a roof structure and the actual roof which again consists of a roof system and roofing.
The structure of the roof – roof structure and roofing
The roof structure is also called roof frame work and typically consists of wood. The roof frame work mainly consists of purlins (inferior purlin, central purlin and ridge purlin), ridge collar, rafter and roofing battens.
A distinction is made between single-shell and double-shell roofs. A single-shell roof is also called warm roof and it is an unventilated roof. The typical use case for a warm roof is the flat roof. A double-shell roof is also called cold roof and is an internally ventilated roof. The air can circulate and prevents moisture condensation.
The roofing is the upper layer of a roof and can consist of different styles and materials. The most important roofings are:
- Roof tiles of clay
- Roof tiles of natural stone
- Roof tiles of concrete
- Roofings of aluminum
- Roofings of wood
- Roofings of reed
Materials of hot dipped galvanized steel, copper, aluminum, zinc or premium steel are used for a classic metal roof and it can be constructed as a trapezoidal sheet metal roof, corrugated sheet metal roof or as a metal roof with standing seam.
Typical roof shapes for single-family houses
When you plan a roof you will often face a lot of technical terms and you can easily lose sight of the bigger picture.
You will have to consider many different criteria regarding the right choice of the roof shape. The most important points for the choice of a roof shape are the following:
- personal preference
- regional building regulations
- roof shapes of the surrounding houses
- geometry and statics of the house
- economic efficiency
- economic efficiency
The roof shapes are different from each other in regards to their design and structure f. We created a list of the most important basic roof shapes for your roof planning. All the following images were created with our house planning software, cadvilla.
Gable end roof
In our region the gable end roof is one of the most popular and common roofs. In a rectangle floor plan the roof areas of a gable end roof on both of the gable ends (front edge) consists of one gable area and of a hipped end roof area on one on the two eave sides (two additional sides).
The laterally inclined roof areas (eave sides) are often equipped with a dormer and thus facilitate an extension or the development of the attic floor.
Hipped end roof
In a rectangle floor plan the hipped end roof consists of a hipped end roof area on all four sides. Therefore the roof has an inclined roof area on all four sides. The inclination of the roof area can be user-defined. The inclined roof areas offer less contact surface for snow and wind load.
Compared to a pyramid hip roof (pyramid roof), a hipped end roof does not have a roof top but instead a roof ridge.
Planning a mansard roof can create additional living space under the roof. The room slopes inside the roof are hardly noticeable and the created roof space can be used efficiently.
The roof areas of the mansard roof are flatter in the upper part than in the lower part of the roof. The roof angles in the lower part have severe bends in the lower part.
Side outshot roof
Side outshot roofs are roofs where the roof areas (or parts of it) stick out far beyond the external wall in order to create a shelter in the entrance area or a space for storing wood.
A side outshot roof is also designed to create a protected parking space.
The monopitch roof consists of only one inclined roof area. In a rectangle floor plan the roof areas of a monopitch roof on the three gable ends (front edge) consist of one gable area and of hipped end roof area on one on the two eave sides. The inclined roof area is always aimed towards the weather-exposed side.
Typically, the roof pitch of monopitch roofs is low. Therefore the roof areas provide lots of space for solar collectors and the roof space resulting from this can be used efficiently.
More room shapes and special types of roofs
Other common roof shapes are flat roof, barrel roof, pyramid hip roof (pyramid roof), cone-type roof, valley roof, shed roof, clipped-gable roof and extended mansard roof.
You can find additional articles helping you plan your house in our guidelines for house builders.
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